Selasa, 19 Juni 2012

A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS AMONG THE INDONESIAN, ENGLISH, AND ARABIC PRONOUNS DEAL WITH THE GENDER STRUCTURES


A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS AMONG THE INDONESIAN, ENGLISH,
AND ARABIC PRONOUNS DEAL WITH THE GENDER STRUCTURES
 Written by Dra.Pujiati M.Soc .Sc Ph.D (U.S.U)


Abstract

Contrastive analysis is one the language area which is discussed in linguistics generally, has been proven in modern descriptive field which aims to complete the study of the linguistics analysis that is detailed, separated from different language based on the principle that shows differences and similarities by comparing the result.
Language is unique, it has its features, it is also universal though. It means that there are some characteristics which are universal and considered the most general element which can be linked to the characteristic or features of other language. In linguistics, gender means sex or nominal and pronominal classification based in the sex.
Gender is divided into three parts: 1.Masculine Gender. 2. Feminime Gender. 3. Neuter Gender. Gender grammatical structure is one of the new branches of study which is hardly ever examined as in the structure of every language, there is gender category which is used by male and female which is considered pronoun in all languages in the world universally such as pronoun in Indonesian, English and Arabian. Pronoun is one of the parts of speech which carries important role in the usage. Every language in the world has one device which is called pronoun. The pronoun exists in order to avoid the repetition of word (anteseden) and at the same time to simplify and ease the language user. The study of contrastive analysis of gender structure is a new study which has never been examined among the three language mentioned above from the structural analysis, therefore, the problem and the background of this study can give new contribution for theoretical improvement and applied linguistics by finding the similarities and differences of gender structures in pronoun in Indonesian, English, Arabian. The result: shoes that there are similarities and differences of pronoun in Indonesian, English and Arabian. The similarities is in the form of gender(sex).The personal pronoun in Indonesian, English and Arabian is used for masculine and feminine , so is the personal pronoun in Indonesian. But the pronoun in Indonesian is more neutral in gender point. Then the similarity is in content and mean. The form of personal pronoun in Indonesian, English and Arabian is referred to mutakallim (first person), mukhatab (second person), and ghaib (third person). Meanwhile from difference is in the form of number (quantity).Pronoun in Arabian (Damir) has singular form, musanna form (dual) and plural form. While the personal pronoun in English and Indonesian only has singularity and plurality. The difference is in gender form (Sex).The personal pronoun in English and Arabian is difference in form if it used for male and female while the personal pronoun in Indonesian does not has any change in form.

I.                   Introduction
Language is the only property owned by human being who has never been separated from the activity and movement of the human, as a creature which has culture and lives in society. None of the human activities is done without language, even in dream human being uses language (Chaer, 1994).
There is no doubt about the role of language for human being. It can be proved not only by the daily use of language, but also by the attention of the scientist and practitioner towards language. Language as the object of science is not monopolized by linguistics. Even the scientists in other study use language as the object of their studies since they need language as the mean to communicate in everything.
The politicians learn language in order to find out the feature of word or sentence and style of language which can touch the heart of the people in their surrounding so that they are affected. The psychologists and psychiatrist learn language in order to find out words or sentences which can shows its function in healing their patient. In the assumption that speech therapy has the suggestive power towards the healing of diseases, doctors need to learn language. In order to be able to blend with the society where they work, the guardians, researchers, speakers always learn the local language to ease them in having social interaction to run their duties. Language is learned by reporters, artist, entrepreneurs and any body with variety of profession to convey their opinion, idea, feeling and mind (Finoza, 2009)
Language shows the identity of a nation, every nation in the world has their own language, and it means that language is the element which has strong influence towards human daily life especially in friendship and integration among themselves or other nation. Every language has its own norm, the norms can be explained about how and then rule of the language.
Contrastive linguistics or contrastive analysis is one of the aspects discussed in linguistic generally, has been proved as a research field in modern descriptive field. The basic point in this contrastive analysis is the necessity of examining the comparative study of language which differs in structure, vocabulary and others as the difference exist in Indonesian, English and Arabian, in which it is more difficult than to learn the same language for example between Seeding Malay and Delhi Malay. The comparison of language contrastively from the teaching of language view can be considered the core of appled linguistics.
Contrastive analysis is a linguistic analysis method that tries to describe, proof and to explain the differences and similarity of linguistic aspects between two or more languages which are compared. The language which is compared is called language in contact. The aim or target of contrastive analysis is to find out the principle of linguistic which is useful to be applied in the practical aims especially for the teaching, learning and translating (Ridwan, 1998).
This article is an interesting study to be discusses. The specific purposes of the discussion of the topic are:
a)      Contrastive linguistic is one of the language area which is described generally, has been proved in modern descriptive field, which function is to complete the linguistic analysis study which is detailed, separated from different languages based on the principle (the study that shows the differences and similarities by comparing the result).
b)      Pronoun is used to refer to noun or the kind of noun. Pronoun is a universal phenomenon, that in speaking, a word referred to human, thing or event is not used repeatedly in the same context. The repetition is only allowed if the word is emphasized or very important. For example, in a report about a crime which is done by a person name, mat, the repetition of the name, mat in every following sentences is impractical. To avoid the negative effect of the repetition, every language in the world has its own device known as pronoun. The pronoun is used to avoid the repetition of word (anteseden).
c)      There is no journal about contrastive analysis of gender structure in pronoun in Indonesian, English and Arabian.


II.                The Analysis and The Result

2.1               Contrastive Analysis

Contrastive analysis is one of the language area which is discussed in linguistics generally , has been proved in modern descriptive field functioned to complete the study of linguistic analysis which is detailed, separated from different languages based on the principle that shows the differences and the similarities by comparing the result.
Language is unique, it has its features, it is also universal though.It means that there are some characteristic which are universal and considered the most general element which can be linked to the characteristic or features of other language (Chaer, 1994).
Gender grammatical is one of the new branch of study which is hardly ever examined as in the structure of every language, there is gender category which is used by male and female is which is considered pronoun in all languages in the world universally such as pronoun in Indonesian , English and Arabian.
Pronoun is one of the parts of speech which carries important role in the usage. Every language in the world has one device which is called pronoun. The pronoun exists in order to avoid the repetition of word (anteseden) and at the same time to simplify and ease the language user.
The study of contrastive analysis of gender structure is a new study which has never been examined among the three language mentioned above from the structural analysis, therefore, the problem and the background of this study can give new contribution for theoretical improvement and applied linguistics by finding the similarities and differences of gender structures in pronoun in Indonesian, English, Arabian.
Linguistics as the study of language has wide atmosphere to describe, analyze, and shows the structural analysis result by the way the system works upon the language used by the certain language society. The language structure here means that the arrangement of language elements which have inter-relation in the certain patterns. The patterns in every stages are learned by linguistic branches such as phonology, morphology, syntax, known as structure or “ilmu qawa’id”
Contrastive linguistics is one of the aspect discussed in linguistics generally, has been proved to be a research field in modern descriptive field. Contrastive linguistics is also known as contrastive analysis. The basic notion of contrastive analysis is that, it is too difficult to learn something unusual from a language which has been known by learners. The comparison of languages contrastively in the view of language teaching is regarded as the core of applied linguistics.
The study of Arabian linguistics is based on the holy Al-Qur’an started in the 7 century since the spread of Islamic religion. The study of Arabian linguistics is in the Arabian terminology so that Arabian gets the attention in Europe so is Latin. In Arabian word, teaching of the linguistics in 7 century was pioneered by Basrah who had built the strong basic in the system of Arabian as the logical utterance about the phenomenon of the world. Instead of the one mentioned before, there was a group of Arabian linguistics at Kibah who had paid great attention to the variety of language dialects which were found at the Arabian structure in the 8 century written by Sibawaihi, an Persian not Arabian. Sibawaihi was Al-Khalil’s student who worked on lexicography. The popular book about language structure written by Sibawaihi is known as Al-Kitab.
Arabian structure or ilmu Qawa’id is the basic rule of reading Al-Qur’an, so it is recognized as the first science among the others; law, economics, algebra, history and so on.Al – Qur’an is read by variety of people. Once Abdul Aswad Adduwaly had ever heard of  the verse in Al-Qur’an. (Q.S 9:3) read as follows:
/anna allaha bariun mi al-musyrikina wa rasuluhu/
“In fact, Allah and his Rasul have terminated the relationship with musyrikin.”

            They uttered “Li” which is underlined, a in fact it should be in the first row as lafaz  “ Rasulihi” is placed after WAW(atf and na’at), so to avoid the mistake they arranged basic rules of nahwu science, then they put interjection in order to help people reading it correctly.Nahwu science can be revised in the second Hijriyah Century.

                        According to W.F Mackey (1984:106-131)
                                    “It is different in structure regarding to the quantity of the understanding the part of speech of the word. Learning language is a process of being able to express oneself in sound through different words.”
                        Language is a mean of social interaction communication. Some linguists express their opinion about language as follows:
                        According to M.Nuh Hudawi (1969:5):
                                    “Language is utterance and human feeling done regularly by means of vocal cord.”

  According to Bloomfield (1984: 24):
"Language as a means of expression compiler has been applied to language teaching methods".
According to Drs. Hami Winarno Seno and Mugiyo BA (1982: 11): "Language is a means of communication between community members, in the form of the symbol of the voice sounds, which is produced by voice production"
According Fiirth (1984:34): "Language is a strong human activity, should involve the mind and ideas who use it, as well as situations where the location of the language used. A language must be classified and abstracted the elements of a situation that has a constant relationship to vocabulary and grammar "

According Samsuri (1983: 5) that language marks human existence, and in this sense can be said about human’s life. I am speaking because I'm alive "
Language is a system of signs or symbols as a means of communication between two people or more. The signs has various types and therefore can be various types of language. Language uses conventional signs system. This system has a close relationship with humans so often assisted by the human organism that is body movement. The existence of language is absolute in life, and it is in communication. So any form of language is a result of contact between the various creatures that have a number of tools from nature for the sake of communication.
               Van Ginneka and Zwerner stated that  (1976: 7): "a man is doing  something to produce large number of signs "

Different it is a clear for us that if two or more children we separate away from the pedagogical influences and we arrange a meeting to get along, regardless of nation or language. They will create language, because they had entered into communication, then the their organs are forced to work. So the language as something that is social is a result of the association and the community which brings the strongest binder together. Every language has certain norms, these norms be explained how and the rules of the language.

2.2 INDONESIAN
Indonesian is one of the Austronesian groups removed from the Riau Malay language and has become the national language and the language of unity at the Youth Congress on 28 October 1928. Indonesian language is the language of national unity of Indonesia as stated in the manuscript ‘Youth pledge” 28 October 1928. Historically, the Indonesian language comes from one of the Malay-Riau temporal dialect. Its existence juridical accepted on August 19, 1945, namely the determination of article by article of the (UUD R.I) the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.


From the history and future considerations, then Indonesian: language, as unity language, the language of the country, the language of science, and language of communication Indonesian people. therefore Indonesian has always improve of grammar according to language repertoire of ethnic and foreign-study. In the Decision of the Politics seminar  (National Language Politics Seminar *) stated that as the national language, Indonesian language function as: 1. The symbol of national pride; 2. The symbol of national identity; 3. as a means of unifying the various communities of different socio-cultural background; and 4. Intercultural and inter-regional communication device.

As a first function that is a symbol of national pride, the Indonesian language should reflect the socio-cultural values that underlie our sense of pride. On the basis of this Indonesian pride we keep and we develop, and a sense of pride we always wear coached.

As a second function that is a symbol of national identity, the Indonesian language reflects the flag and emblem beside us. In the Indonesian perform this function would have to have identity. Indonesian to have his identity only if the user community build and develop it in such a way that the net of elements of other languages, especially foreign languages like English, which is not really necessary.

Indonesian language third function in his capacity as the national language is a device that enables the implementation of unification of various tribes who have cultural backgrounds and languages of different regions into a complete national unity. In this connection, the Indonesian language allows various ethnic groups that achieve harmony of life as a unified nation with no need to leave the tribal identity and on social values and cultural background of the respective of regional languages.

The fourth function of  Indonesian language is as the national language as a device of communication between residents, between regions, and tribal nations. Thanks to the national language, we can relate to one another such that so that misunderstandings due to differences in socio-cultural backgrounds and languages can be avoided.

In his position as the State language, the Indonesian language function as 1. Official language; 2. Official language of instruction in educational institutions; 3. The official language of communication at the national level for the purposes of development planning and administration; and 4. The official language in cultural development and utilization of science and technology.

As a function of the first as the official nation language, the Indonesian language used in all ceremonies, events, and country activity, both in oral and written form. Included in the activities that were writing documents and decisions as well as speeches and state papers issued by government agencies.

The second function as the State language, the Indonesian language is the language of instruction at educational institutions ranging from kindergarten to college across Indonesia and the Indonesian schools abroad.
English is used in Britain, United State, Canada, Australia and other regions in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. The total native speaker: 402 million. Besides, it is as the second language for 600 million people around the world and as the third rank within group of Indo-Europe language. English is the first language in United State, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Great Britain, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, New Zealand, Trinidad and Tobago.
Besides, English is also as one of legal language in international organization like United Nations (UN) and International Olympic Committee, and also as nation language in some countries, like South Africa, Belize, Philippine, Hongkong, Ireland, Canada, Nigeria, Singapore, and the others. 
English is the first second-language learnt in the world. It was spread since the policy and imperialism from England and then Britain influenced the world. One of the English proverbs named British Empire iswhere the sun never sets”.



2.5 PRONOUN
Definition of pronoun from linguistic point of view:

William Norris (1981: 1407) state:
“Pronoun is one class of words that function as substituted for pronouns or noun phrase and denote persons or thing asked for, previously specified, or under stood from the context”
           
The Encyclopedia Americana International states (1974: 655):
“Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun to refer to someone or something earlier mentioned or generally understood”
Webster (1974: 763) defines:
“Pronoun is one of certain class of words often used instead of a noun phrase mentioned, asked for or known in the context, so that the noun need not be repeated”

Pronoun as one of the part of speech has an important role in its usage. Kata ganti merupakan salah satu golongan dari kelas kata yang memiliki arti penting dalam pengunaannya. All languages in the world have a tool named pronoun. Pronoun is functioned to avoid repetition or anteseden and to simplify the usage of languages and also to make it easier as well.
Damir in a Arabic and  dan personal pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, as one of important tools are used anywhere and anytime by the user of both languages, in order to avoid the chat words, which is why damir is used and personal pronoun.
The contrastive analysis in Arabic and personal pronoun in bahasa Indonesia is a linguistic analysis within the two language, to look for differences and the similarity of both languages.
Besides, this research is conducted to present to the readers particularly, and the community of both languages in general to know: to what extend the difference between damir in Arabic with pronoun in bahasa Indonesia..
Based on the motivations explained above, the reason why this research was conducted is because there is no book written which analyze the contrast of structure gender pronoun in Malay, English, and Arabic.

GENDER IN LANGUAGE

From the linguistic point of view, Gender means sex or classification of noun based on the sex. (Husain, 1993). In gender classification, Anggawirya (1982) divides gender into four classification, they are: 1. Masculine Gender, 2. Feminine Gender, 3. Neuter Gender  4. Common Gender. The same opinion according to Mas’ud (1987) also in four classification. While  Rebecca (1956) divides it into three classification, they are: 1. Masculine Gender, 2. Feminine Gender, 3. Neuter Gender.
The word gender genuinely is Greece “genus” meanings types or groups (Barnhart, 1957). The meaning is now developed to be the social role between male and female. To make it clearer, both should be discriminated physically (Fakih, 1988). Female have menstruation, to have baby, and to suckle, which are never experienced by male. On the other hand, male has Adam’s apple, sperm, and penis; which are not changeable with female’s. Sex is natural and as given by God while gender is social and bordered by time and culture.
Poynton (1985) describe three domain in the context of gender, they are:  lexis, the linguistic futures and the link between language and idea. Nevertheless, in the context of gender, linguistic domain cannot be separated with the context of ideology and socio-cultural. For example, lexis butet ‘a little girl and ucoka little boy’ in Bataknese is not only discriminate female and male, but also state the difference in bias gender as ideology - butet indicates the weakness, so she must be protected, leaded, and nursed.
From linguistic point of view, the contrastive analysis grammatical gender in pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English, and Arabic covers syntaxes and morphologies aspects. Any languages in this universe, theoretically could be taken as comparative study, any languages has its particular specification. As Gorys Keraf (1984: 33) says that the universal specification of languages could be taken as a comparative analysis:

  1. The similarity in the form and meaning. Any languages has its particular form linked with the particular meaning for reference simplification.
  2. Any languages has its smallest functional unit, named phoneme and they are unique in each language. There is an interesting fact, that each language has its smallest unit to differentiate meanings, and the compound of very limited sounds could produce unlimited symbols (words). Phoneme in any languages is around 15 up to 50, but those could produce thousands morphemes; smallest meaningful unit.
  3. Any languages in the world has its particular part of speech, they are noun, verb, adjective, personal pronoun and numbers.
The writer make a limitation in contrastive analysis of grammatical gender of bahasa Indonesia, English, and Arabic based on the comparative object in the form of personal pronoun, clitic and gender. According to Keraf  (1984: 33) that the most suitable aspect of comparative study is formed analysis, such as searching the similarity and the contrastive of pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English and Arabic as follows:
  1. The form of position/cases of pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English and Arabic; nominative, accusative, and genitive. The form of position personal pronoun as subject and object. The form of permanent pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English and Arabic. The permanent formed/klitis.
  2. The initial formed, at the end of pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English, and Arabic.
  3. The numbers formed, either singular pronoun or plural pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English, and Arabic.  The gender formed (sex) damir in bahasa Indonesia, English, and Arabic.
d.      The content formed of pronoun in bahasa Indonesia, English, and Arabic directed to the first, second, third persons.

2.7 FINDING

From the contrastive analysis point of view, grammatical pronoun of gender in bahasa Indonesia, English and Arabic, the finding is as follows: 
            Characteristically, personal pronoun in bahasa Indonesia divided into two parts, they are 1) the main pronoun and 2) the other pronoun. Pronoun in English divided into seven, they are:    personal pronouns, possesive pronoun, reflexive pronoun, demonstrative pronun, Indefinite pronouns, Interrogative pronuns, and relative or conjuctive pronouns. Damir in Arabic, from structural point of view pronoun/damir divided into two parts, they are damir bariz (kata ganti jelas) and damir mustatir (kata ganti tidak jelas).

In the Arabic language in terms of structural pronouns / Damir Damir divided into bariz (clear pronouns) and Damir mustatir (unclear pronouns). From the aspect of grammatical gender in pronouns, so now we have been discussing some aspects of the nexus that exist between communities of language related to  different languages, and also on some form of a difference than this. Two types of social differences that have been discussed are social stratification and ethnic group differences. In both of them have to be shown that the harmony between social differences with differences in geography related to their impressions upon the language, namely, social distance has found that impressions are the same as the distance linguistic geography. As well as geographical clusters, a collection of ethnic and social class characteristics have the same linguistics because nexus among them more than with people outside their group. The investigation has found that language in many communities there is a difference between the speech of men and women. In most cases, the differences are very small and generally not realized.
          These differences are considered as ordinary matter, the same as the differences in faces or movement behavior. For example, in many American English accent is found that the designation by the female vowels are more than a few terms (more in the frontier, further back, higher, or lower), than men. However, in some other things as well, these differences may be large, deliberate and sometimes taught to a child. Child found to have used the form used by women, namely / ts / and / dz /, and parents too, both male and female, using a different form , that is / aj / da. This means that a man uses three different forms in his life, and therefore regarded as a  conscious of this fact when he makes  a speech from one form to another. At first these differences can not be explained on the basis of social distance. In most societies men and women relate to freely among one another, and rarely there are social constraints that may affect communication between the two jantina greatness of this. From the emergence of language variation that is based jantina can not be explained after the way the form of class dialects, a collection of ethnic and geographical dialects. How do exactly these differences arise? Why do men sometimes speak differently from women? Let's look at some examples of these differences and try to -- the prosecutor language  about language differences in terms of jantina determine whether the factors that led to its emergence. We start from the differences rather large, which can easily be identified. Examples of well-known to   prosecutors about language differencesinterms of jantina   come from the West Indies. Had been reported when Europeans first arrived in the islands and the Lesser Anillis connected with people who lived there Hindian Carip found that there were men and women "tells a different language." Men used more specific phrases he understood, but never used one female. In contrast, women used words and feelings that were never used by men, if men used them they would be ridiculed. The result looked as if women had a different language than men.

          The terms of contrastive analysis is to look for differences and similarities of grammatical gender pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic in the form of tables on the following pages:


A.  Gender Pronouns  in  Indonesian, English, and Arabic
MASCULINE
 INDONESIAN
ENGLISH
 ARABIC
First Singular
saya, aku
I
أنا
First Plural
Kami, kita
We
نحن
Second Singular
Kita
We
أنت
Male



Second of two
Kamu
You
أنتما
Men



Second Plural
Kamu

أنتم
of Men

You

Third Singular 
Dia
He
هو
of Male



Third of two
Mereka
They
هما
Men



Third Plural
Mereka
They
هم
of Male




FEMININE
 INDONESIAN
 ENGLISH
 ARABIC
First Singular
saya, aku
I
أنا
First Plural
Kami, kita
We
نحن
Second Singular
Engkau
You
أنت
of  Female



Second of two
Kamu
You
أنتما
Women



Second Plural of
Kamu
You
أنتن
Women



Third Singular
Dia
She
هي
of Female



Third of two
Mereka
They
هما
Women



Third Plural
Mereka
They
هن
Female




In terms of gender pronouns in the Indonesian language are more likely to be neutral like dia can be used both for masculine and feminine while in the English and Arabic has a different shape changes to male and female pronouns like he, she, هو, هي.


A.  Pronouns on  the Subject Form  in  Indonesian, English and Arabic
PERSON
 INDONESIAN
ENGLISH
ARABIC
First Singular
Saya, aku
I
أنا

First Plural
Kami, kita
We
نحن
Second Singular of
Kita
We
أنت
Male



Second of two
Kamu
You
أنتما
Men



Second Plural
Kamu

أنتم
of Male

You

Second Singular of
Engkau
You
أنت
Female



Second of  two
Kamu
You
أنتما
Women



Second Plural
Kamu
You
أنتن
Female



Third Singular
Dia
He
هو
Male



Third of two
Mereka
They
هما
Men



Third Plural
Mereka
They
هم
Male



Third Singular
Dia
She
هي
Female



Third of two
Mereka
They
هما
Women



Third Plural
Mereka
They
هن
Female



               

B.  Clitic on Object Pronouns  in Indonesian, Inggris and Arabic
 PERSON
 INDONESIAN
ENGLISH
 ARABIC
First Singular
Dia memukulku
(Saya)
He hits me
ضربني
First Plural
Dia memukul kami
He hits us
ضربنا
Second Singular
Dia memukulmu
He hits you
ضربك
Male                   



Second of two
Dia memukulmu
He hits you
ضربكما
Men



Second Plural
Dia memukulmu
He hits you
ضربكم
Male



Second Singular

Dia memukulmu
She hits you
ضربك
Female



Second of two
Dia memukulmu
She hits you
ضربكما
Women



Second of Plural 
Dia memukulmu
She hits you
ضربكن
Female



Third Singular
Dia memukulnya
He hits him
ضربه
Female



Third of two Men
Dia memukul mereka
He hits them
ضربهما


Klitik on People Shape Object Pronouns in the Indonesian language, English and Arabic
 
C. Klitik Gender Pronouns on Object Forms in Indonesian, English and Arabic  
 Person
 INDONESIAN
 English
 ARABIC
 First Singular
Dia memukulku
(Saya)
He hits me
ضربني
First Plural
Dia memukul kami
He hits us
ضربنا
Second Singular
Dia memukulmu
He hits you
ضربك
Masculine           



Second of two
Dia memukulmu
He hits you
ضربكما
Men



Second Plural
Dia memukulmu
He hits you
ضربكم
Masculine



Second Singular
Dia memukulmu
She hits you
ضربك
Feminine



Second of two
Dia memukulmu
She hits you
ضربكما
Females



Second of   Plural
Dia memukulmu
She hits you
ضربكن
Feminine



Third Singular
Dia memukulnya
He hits him
ضربه
Masculine



Third of two
Dia memukul mereka
He hits them
ضربهما
Men




Dia memukul mereka
He hits them
ضربهم
Men



Third Singular
Dia memukul mereka
She hits them
ضربهما
Feminine



Third of two
Dia memukul mereka
She hits them
ضربهما
Women



Third Singular
Dia memukul mereka
She hits them
ضربهن
Feminine



             In Indonesian and Arabic there are klitik as an example in Indonesian  dia memukulmu He/She hits you and in Arabic  (ضربني ) and there is no klitik in English found.

C.           SIMILARITY PRONOUS IN INDONESIAN,   ENGLISH AND ARABIC
1.    Similarity on Gender Form
Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic (Damir munfasil) on subject form in   Arabic used for  masculine and feminine, as well as pronouns in  Indonesian is distinct in terms of gender because it’s  more likely to neutral.

Examples in Indonesian Language :
Feminine                                                         Masculine
Dia (she)                                                         dia (he)
Mereka (they)                                                  mereka (they)
Engkau (you)                                                  engkau (you)
Kamu (you)                                                     kamu (you0
Saya  (I)                                                          saya (I)
 Kami (we)                                                      kami  (we)

Examples in English :
Feminine                                                         Masculine
She                                                                  He      
They                                                                They   
You                                                                 you     
You                                                                 You    
I                                                                       I          
We                                                                   We

Examples in Arabic :
Feminine                                                        Masculine                                                      
/hiya/   هي                              /huwa/               هو
/huma/ هما                             /huma/             هما
Hunna/            هن                             /hum/                هم 
/anti/    أنت                             /anta/               أنت
/antuma/          أنتما               /antuma/          أنتما
/antunna/         أنتن              /antum/                 أنتم
/nahnu/            نحن                         /nahnu/                 نحن

2.    Similarity in terms of content and intent.
Pronouns Form in Indonesian, English and   Arabic (lafaz damir) addressed to the  first, second and third person.

Examples in  Indonesian :
First Singular               : saya  ( I )
         Plural                 : kami, kita  (we)
Second Singular          : engkau  (you)
         Plural                  : kamu  (you)
Third Singular             : mereka (they)
Examples in Arabic :
First Singular               : /ana/               أنا
         Plural                  : /nahnu/          نحن
Second Singular          : /anti/, /anta/   أنت| أنت
              Musanna        : /antuma/                    أنتما
            Plural               : /antunna/, /antum/     أنتم| أنتن
Third Singular             : /hiya/, /huwa/ هو| هي
          Musanna            : /huma/                       هما
     Plural              : /hunna/, /hum/هم| هن

3. Similarity in terms of form
a) Pronouns in Indonesian, English and  Arabic (Damir bariz/damir mustatir) are  nominative as  subjects  (kasus rafa in Arabic).

Examples in Indonesian :
Kami berlibur ke Brastagi       ‘ We were on vacation in Berastagi’
Engkau datang ke rumahnya   ‘ You come to her house’
Example in English :
I go to school.
Examples in Arabic :
 ولا أنا عابد ما عبدتم
/wala ana ‘abidun ma ‘abadtum/
I'm not worshiping what you worship(Q.S 109 :4)
 قل أعوذ برب الناس
/qul a’uzu bi rabbi n-nas(i)/
"Say: I seek refuge in God (ruler of all) human beings" (Q.S 114 :1)

4.    Similarity in terms of fixed form (mabni) or not.
Pronouns in   Indonesian, Arabic, English remains in each sentence.
Example in Indonesian :
Kuambil buluh sebatang   I took a bamboo.
Example in English :
I take your book
Example in Arabic :
ولا أنتم عابدون ما أعبد
/wa la antum ‘abiduna ma a’bud (u) /
And not you worship what I worship " (Q.S 109: 5)

5.    Similarity on sentence order.
Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic (Damir munfasil rafa’) structure  is placed at the beginning of the sentence, while the pronouns is generallyplaced at the beginning of the sentence unless the sentence inversion.

Example in Indonesian :
Aku berdiri di senja sunyi.  I stood in the silence of the twilight/the twilight silence.
Example in English  :
I write a book 
Example in Arabic :
هو الغفور الودود
/huwa l-ghafuru l-wadud (u)/
‘He is very forgiving, full of love (Q.S 85:14)

6.    Similarity on object  (accusative)
In Indonesian, English and  Arabic (kasus nasab).
Example in Indonesian :
Dia memberiku uang    He gives me money
Example in English :
He gives me money
Examples in Arabic :
إياك نعبد زإياك نستعين
/iyyaka na’budu wa iyyaka nasta’in (u)/
You’re the only who we worship, and unto thy we only ask for help (Q.S 1 :5)
فجعلهم كعسف مأكول
/faja ‘alahum ka’asfin ma’kul (in)
and then make them like the leaves are depleted encroached on the animals (Q.S 105 :5)

7.    Similarity in terms of  clitic form or not.
Pronouns in Indonesian, English and  Arabic shaped on clitic abbreviations.
Example in Arabic :
إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر


'have we sent down (the Qur'an) in kaylatul Qadr' (Sura 97: 1)
Examples in the Indonesian language:
Guru menghukum mereka
(The teacher punishes  them)
Examples in English:
He called me

8. Equation in terms of laying the composition.
In the Indonesian, English and Arabic sentence the object is placed behind the verb.
Examples in the Indonesian language:
Dia memberiku setangkai bunga
Examples in English:
He Gives me a flower
Examples in Arabic:
اللذى أطعمهم من جوع وامنهم من خوف
/ allazi at'amhum min ju'in amanahum wa min khauf (in) /

E.  THE DIFFERENCE OF PRONOUNS IN INDONESIAN,ENGLISH AND ARABIC namely:
1. Differences in terms of gender (sex).
Tha pronoun in English and Arabic has  different form when it is used for male or female. Meanwhile, in Indonesian the pronoun has  the  same form for both men and women.

Example in Indonesian 
Dia bibimu, Dia pamanmu
Example in English :
She's your aunt
He's your uncle
Examples in Arabic 
بل هو قران مجيد

/ bal Huwa qur'anun majid (un) /
'This is not the glorious qur'an' (Sura 85: 21)
فانماهي زجرة واحدة
/ fa hiya innama zajratun wahidat (un) /
'but really it's just a cry alone "(Surah 97: 13)

2. The Differences in terms of  number (quantity)  in the position as the subject.
Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic has a number of different forms for the pronoun as the subject of Arabic found in singular , dual form (musanna), and plural. While the pronouns in Indonesian and English has singular and plural, there is no dual form as it is found in Arabic.
Examples in Arabic
Singular : / anti /, / anta /, / anti /, / Huwa /, / hiya / أنت, أنت, هو, هي
Dual form (musanna): / antuma /, / huma /
هما, أنتما
The plural: / hunna /
هن, هم, نحن
 Example in  Indonesian
Singular: aku, engkau, dia
The plural: kami (kita) , kamu, mereka
Example in English
Singular: I, You, he, she
The plural: They, you, We

3.The Differences in  terms of the  number (quantity) in  the position as objects in a sentence .
In Arabic There are singular, and plural, and  musanna, but the  pronouns in Indonesian and English there are only singular and plural. 
Example in Indonesian
Singular: ku, mu, nya
Plural: kami/kita, mu (kamu), mereka
Example in  English
Singular: I, You, he, she
The plural: They, you, We
Sample Arabic
Single: / ki /, / ka /, / ni /, / ha '/, / ha / ك, ك, ني, ها, هاء
Musanna: / huma /, / crocus / هما, كما
The plural: / / hum /, / na /, / kunna /, / law /, / hunna / هم, نا, كن, كم, هن

The Differences in terms of  kilitik (abbreviation).
Pronoun in Indonesian, English and Arabic has  different forms for its short.
Example in Indonesian 
Dia memperhatikannya, ketika sedang berjalan .
Example in  English
He watches  her while she is walking 
Examples in Arabic:

/ wa lasawfa yu'tika rabbuka fatard (a) /
'and your God gives you what's fun for you' (Surah 93: 5)

III. CONCLUSION
 contrastive analysis of gender structure is one of the discussion of general linguistics which aims to analyze the equation-the similarities and differences in terms of gender, especially for the object is a pronoun in the Indonesian, English and Arabic. In terms of pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic are:
1. The similarity in terms of gender (sex). Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic.  Arabic uses pronoun for masculine and feminine, as well as pronouns in Indonesian. But Indonesian pronouns are more neutral in terms of gender.
2. The Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic that are based on the position of the nominative (case  rafa ') as the subject, and  the personal pronoun in Indonesian and English as subjects are found as the subjects in a sentence.
3. The similarity  in terms of same form (mabni) or not. Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic in each sentence. While the pronouns in Indonesian is the same except proklitis and enklitis abbreviated form.
4. The similarity in sentence structure. The Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic (Damir munfasil rafa ') the position is at the beginning of the sentence.
5. The similarity in terms of the content and aim. The pronouns  in the Indonesian language, English and Arabic is addressed to mutakallim (first person), mukhatab (second person), and the supernatural (the third person.
6. The similarity in terms of  the order in the sentence.The Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic (Damir muttasil) as the object in the sentence and it is placed behind the verb, as well as the personal pronoun  in Indonesia the object is placed behind the verb.
7. Judging from the linguistic aspects of the discussion The pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic as well as syntax, including aspects of syntax (nahwu) and morphology.

The difference in terms of the personal pronoun in Indonesian language, English and Arabic are:
1. The Differences in terms of gender forms (sex). Pronouns in English and Arabic is  different if it used   for men and women while pronouns in Indonesian is not change its form.
2.The differences in terms of the number (quantity). Pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic have differences in terms of pronouns in Arabic (Damir) in  singular,  musanna (dual) and the plural. While the personal pronoun in English and Indonesian languages have only singular and plural.
3. The differences pronouns in Indonesian, English and Arabic in terms of enklitik.  enklitik is found In  Indonesian language and Arabic  but  in   English language it is not found. Damir mustatirjawazan (the personal pronoun may be hidden) in Arabic, while in Indonesian and English are not found.
4. The personal pronouns in Indonesian in terms of the basic pronouns that are original, such as: saya, beta, tuan, saudara, beliau, tuan-tuan, bapak-bapak. in English and Arabic the basic pronoun is not found. 


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